Wednesday, December 4, 2019
A look at two supreme court cases and their impact on Canadian rape shield legislation. This paper is an examination of the two cases of Seaboyer and Gayme by the Supreme Court of Canada at rape shield legislation for sex assault witnesses. The author reveals the manner in which these cases were conducted and how the verdict raised public controversy. From the paper: In the case of Seaboye and Gayme, the Supreme Court of Canada rendered a decision which was divisive, not only among members of the court, but also within the nation itself. In delivering this verdict, the court became the target of accusations that it had ignored the interests of women. It had shown disregard for the victimization which women have been subject to in the process of sexual assault trials. As well, the court introduced procedural rules which made womens experience in sexual assault trials more of an ordeal than the process had been under the common law (Bowland, 1994). We will write a custom essay sample on Seaboye and Gayme or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Hong Kong - 10 Facts About the Chinese Region of Hong Kong Located along the southern coast of China, Hong Kong is one of the two special administrative regions in China. As a special administrative region, the former British territory of Hong Kong is a part of China but gets a high level of autonomy and it does not have to follow certain laws that Chinese provinces do. Hong Kong is known for its quality of life and high ranking on the Human Development Index. A List of 10 Facts About Hong Kong 1) 35,000-Year History Archaeological evidence has shown that humans have been present in the Hong Kong area for at least 35,000 years and there are several areas where researchers have found Paleolithic and Neolithic artifacts throughout the region. In 214 B.C.E. the region became a part of Imperial China after Qin Shi Huang conquered the area. The region then became a part of the Nanyue Kingdom in 206 B.C.E. after the Qin Dynasty collapsed. In 111 B.C.E the Nanyue Kingdom was conquered by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. The region then eventually became a part of the Tang Dynasty and in 736 C.E. a military town was built to protect the region. In 1276 the Mongols invaded the region and many of the settlements were moved.2) A British Territory The first Europeans to arrive in Hong Kong were the Portuguese in 1513. They quickly set up trading settlements in the region and they were eventually forced out of the area due to clashes with the Chinese military. In 1699 the British East India Company first entered China and established trading posts in Canton. In the mid-1800s the first Opium War between China and Britain took place and Hong Kong was occupied by British forces in 1841. In 1842 the island was ceded to the United Kingdom under the Treaty of Nanking. In 1898 the UK also got Lantau Island and nearby lands, which later became known as the New Territories.3) Invaded During WWII During World War II in 1941, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong and the UK eventually surrendered its control of the area to Japan after the Battle of Hong Kong. In 1945 the UK regained control of the colony. Throughout the 1950s Hong Kong rapidly industrialized and as such its economy quickly began to grow. In 1984 the UK and China signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration to transfer Hong Kong to China in 1997 with the understanding that it would get a high level of independence for at least 50 years.4) Transferred Back to China On July 1, 1997 Hong Kong was officially transferred from the UK to China and it became the first special administrative region of China. Since then its economy has continued to grow and it has become one of the most stable and highly populated areas in the region.5) Its Own Form of Government Today Hong Kong is still governed as a special administrative region of China and it has its own form of government with an executive branch made up of a chief of state (its president) and a head of government (the chief executive). It also has a legislative branch of government that is composed of a unicameral Legislative Council and its legal system is based on English laws as well as Chinese laws. Hong Kongs judicial branch consists of a Court of Final Appeal, a High Court as well as district courts, magistrates courts and other lower level courts. The only areas in which Hong Kong does not get autonomy from China is in its foreign affairs and defense issues.6) A World of Finance Hong Kong is one of the worlds largest international finance centers and as such it has a strong economy with low taxes and free trade.Ã economy is considered a free market one that is highly dependent on international trade. The main industries in Hong Kong, other than finance and banking, are textiles, clothing, tourism, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches and clocks (CIA World Factbook). Agriculture is also practiced in some areas of Hong Kong and the main products of that industry are fresh vegetables, poultry, pork and fish (CIA World Factbook).7) Dense Population Hong Kong has a large population with 7,122,508 (July 2011 estimate) people. It also has one of the densest populations in the world because its total area is 426 square miles (1,104 sq km). The population density of Hong Kong is 16,719 people per square mile or 6,451 people per square kilometer. Because of its dense population, its public transit network is highly developed and about 90% of its population utilizes it.8) Located on Chinas Southern Coast Hong Kong is located on the south coast of China near the Pearl River Delta. It is about 37 miles (60 km) east of Macau and is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south and west. On the north it shares a border with Shenzhen in Chinas Guangdong province. Hong Kongs area of 426 square miles (1,104 sq km) consists of Hong Kong Island, as well as the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories.9) Mountainous The topography of Hong Kong varies but it is mostly hilly or mountainous throughout its area. The hills are also very steep. The northern part of the region consists of lowlands and the highest point in Hong Kong is Tai Mo Shan at 3,140 feet (957 m).10) Nice Weather Hong Kongs climate is considered subtropical monsoon and as such it is cool and humid in the winter, hot and rainy in spring and summer and warm in the fall. Because it is a subtropical climate, the average temperatures do not vary much throughout the year.To learn more about Hong Kong, visit its official government website.ReferencesCentral Intelligence Agency. (16 June 2011). CIA - The World Factbook - Hong Kong. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hk.htmlWikipedia.org. (29 June 2011). Hong Kong - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Role of the audit committee - Essay Example The paper will discuss the roles, the responsibilities and the effectiveness of the audit committee in details. The independence of the audit committee and how its independence is ensured will be explored. The current issues that are being faced by the audit committee in the context of various accounting misrepresentations will also be analysed. Role of Audit Committee The Role of Audit Committee in the US and the UK and Oversight of Internal and External Auditors and Overseeing Financial Reporting The audit committee has the responsibility of judging the validity of financial statements. The internal financial controls of the company and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s risk management system are reviewed by the audit committee (Financial Reporting Council, 2010). The audit committee is responsible for hiring the external auditors. They have the right to fire the external auditors if their performance is not satisfactory. ... The audit committee has the authority to hire as well as terminate the independent auditors. They approve the fees of engaged auditors. They conduct discussion with the independent auditors regarding the approach that will be taken in conducting the audit. They conduct a review of the audit that is done by the independent auditor to understand the areas of concern and make suggestions. They conduct an annual review of the audit report of the independent auditor. The audit committee reviews the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting controls internally along with the risk management policies of the company. They monitor the financial reporting and financial disclosures in the company. The financial statements that are audited are discussed with the management and the auditors. The audit committee reports regularly to the board of directors regarding their inference from audit reports (Singh, 2005). The audit committee is responsible for ensuring independence of both internal and external auditor s. The audit committee has a liaison with internal and external auditors. The external auditors underwrite the validity of accounting information. The audit committee has the responsibility of ensuring the independence of the internal auditors. They provide resources to the internal auditors to ensure quality of the information. The internal auditors report to the audit committee. The compliance with standards and code of ethics of the internal auditors make things easier for the audit committee (The Institute of Internal Auditors, 2004). Importance and Effectiveness of Audit Committees The rising scandals and fraudulence activities in the corporate world have increased the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Language Acquisition and Various Influences on Student Learning - Essay Example This essay declares that children invent the learning rules through making initial mistakes and correcting themselves as they develop. Various aspects of language acquisition have been identified by theorists that make it a biologically controlled process. Two of these aspects are significant for language educators in creating an environment that promotes learning among students. Firstly, it has to be stressed that language acquisition is innate and it is not generated by external events. However, its development requires a rich environment that exposes the learner more to the language. Secondly, it is also noted that direct teaching and intensive practice do not have significant positive effects on the language acquisition process. These aspects imply that a proper language acquisition will then be enhanced through creation of some classroom environment that favors interaction between the students themselves. This paper discusses that developing such a climate will involve examination different factors affecting learning and their mutual relations. The influence of social and emotional factors on the learning process can no longer be ignored. Such negligence results in the development of some instructional gap and the students attempt to fill this gap in their devised mechanisms that do not support the learning process. Some degree of mutual relationship occurs among intellectual, social, and emotional processes as they affect the learning process. ... The learning process occurs in some social context that is dynamic in nature so that an individual with complex cognition will be able to learn and adapt to the changing needs of the social contexts of learning as opposed to the less complex individuals (Love & Love, 1996). Aspects of the social setup such as the culture of a community may affect a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, attitudes, or motivations towards the learning process. These are detrimental to the learning process if carried into the classroom environment. On the other hand, the individuals with complex cognition have better skills of understanding the perspectives of other people. This implies that good cognition can help students adapt to new social settings, which is essential for learning. The relationship between cognition and the social process is also evident in classroom discussions. A good proportion of learning in students occurs in the classroom discussions, where students share their experiences that they feel t he other individuals need to learn. Through the discussions, a student is able to learn more of the concept or determine if it is well understood Emotions also have effects on the learning and development processes in students since the feeling states, and thinking states cannot be separated easily (Love & Love, 1996). The emotional and rational minds of an individual often act in a balanced manner to guide the individual through life decisions. While emotions will strive to inform and guide the rational operations, rational mind will try to refine the input from emotional mind before initiating an operation (Love & Love, 1996). Negative emotions such as depression, when carried into the classroom, will suppress the learning process. The students will not be able to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Lamb to the Slaughter - Essay Example The use of irony can easily captivate and excite us. Many a times in order to understand the moral of the story or the theme; it needs one to be able to recognize irony. There are multiple uses and examples of irony throughout this short story. One example is when Mary Maloney goes to the grocery store after she kills her husband; she acts as if nothing has happened and gives the grocery store clerk the idea that everything is fine. This is considered dramatic irony because the reader knows more about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s taken place than some of the characters in the story. The clerk thinks Patrick is at home waiting for dinner, but we know he is dead. Another example is when the policemen are eating the leg of lamb and one says "Probably right under our very noses. What do you think, Jack? "(Dahl 9).This is dramatic irony because the weapon used to kill Patrick really is right under their noses. Yet they have obviously committed one of the worst errors possible in this crime scene, and lo st the pivotal evidence they would need to for finding the killer, they continue eating, assuming the leg of lamb could never be a weapon, while Mary Maloney is giggling in the other room. In other words, Dahl is trying to capture here, and the dramatic irony really catches the tone of the dark comedy. That makes the audience feel the ideas of a tragedy as something funny. Therefore, relating back to the overall picture of the piece of literate as a dark comedy. The conflict then begins to arise again as she creates an alibi and brings in the police to catch the murderer. There are two external conflicts in this story.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Effect Of Work Stress In Maruti Suzuki Commerce Essay Introduction to Maruti Suzuki Ltd. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. is a leading manufacturer automobile company in India. It was established in December 1983 with the mission to motorise India. Maruti was Collaboration Company between Suzuki Motors Corporation, Japan and Government of India. Maruti is one of the largest compact car manufacturing companies in the world so till 2012. In terms of production, Maruti is the largest subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation and the company has produced over 15 million vehicles since the roll out of its first vehicle on 14th December, 1983. In the employment sector, Maruti has more than 75000 employees and its manufacturing facilities are located at two locations in India in Gurgaon and Manesae, both south of New Delhi. Maruti Suzuki is the only Indian company to cross the 10 million sales mark since its origin. In 2011-12, the company sold over 1.13 million vehicles including 1, 27,379 units of exports.(Marutisuzuki 2012) Marutis PhilosophyÃ Marutis uses its Green Philosophy in the stems of Three Rs: Reduce, Recycle and Reuse policy in its plants, so that there is a minimal stress on natural resources. The company has launched a number of initiatives under its Three Rs umbrella to make the plants more efficient in terms of resource usage. It is also certified with ISO 14001:1996 for its Environment Management System programme and uses the principle of Smaller, fewer lighter, shorter and neater for its operations. Problems in Maruti Company: According to workers who are employed at Maruti Suzuki, highly stressful working hours have been a major concern for the stress of the employees who are working in the Maruti Suzuki. According to the workers, the stressful working hours leads the works to prolonged impasse. Excessive of work load and stringent time management is the major cause of the stress for the workers. There are several reasons for the cause of the work stress for the employees. In the several reasons the major seven reasons for the work stress are,(Cherry 2012, Sengupta 2012) 7 Reason for Work Stress Differences in salary pay No allowance Job insecurity Lack of promotion prospects Under-promotion or over-promotion Unclear or unfair performance evaluation systems Being over-skilled or under-skilled for the job Differences in Salary Pay The first reason for the work stress for the employees is mainly due to the difference in the salary pay. Mostly about 70% of the employees are contract based employees and they paid very less salary when compared to the other workers who are working in the same grade as conformed workers. No allowance Since most of the employees are contract based employees the company has not provide them with any allowance. Hence they didnt get any allowance from the government as well from the company. Job insecurity As contract based employment there is no security for the employees for their job. They can be fired at any moment. This is also a reason for the employees for their stress. Lack of promotion prospects As a contract based employee, there is no promotion prospects for them. Employees need to do the work what the work is assigned for them. This is also a reason for the employees for their stress. Under-promotion or over-promotion Since there is no proper evaluation system or performance appraisal system for the promotion, Employees are promoted in a basis of their influence to the managers. This leads to other workers for the stress in their working. Unclear or unfair performance evaluation systems As said before there is no proper evaluation system for the performance. And this leads to unclear promotion to the employees. So it leads to stress for the workers. Being over-skilled or under-skilled for the job As most of the employees are contract based employees, and hence the position what they are working being an irrelevant position. For example an employee who Mechanical Engineering and working in the finance department. So most of the employees are being like under skilled or over skilled for the jobs, so this also leads to stress for the employees in their working.(Sengupta 2012) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper A Theory of Human Motivation in the year 1943. Maslow mainly used the terms like Physiological needs, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem and Self Actualization needs to describe his human motivation theory. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg/450px-Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png Hierarchy Maslows hierarchy of needs can be explained with the help of a pyramid. The most fundamental level of needs is specified at the bottom and at the top needs for self-actualization. Maslow explains the pyramid with four layers and he called them as Deficiency needs or D-Needs. The four layers are Esteem, Friendship and love, Security and Physical needs. He also explains that the most fundamental needs may not be the physical needs. Maslow also use the term Meta motivation in order to motivate the people. He also explains that human mind have the ability for parallel processing and thus by motivating the people also they can achieve their hierarchal needs. Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he focused on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they should be met.(Cherry 2012) Physiological needs Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If any of these requirements ate not obtained then the human mind wont function properly and this leads to ultimate failure. Therefore food, shelter, love and respect are some of the basic physiological needs that a human normally expects to be with him.(Cherry 2012) Safety needs The safety needs in the sense job security, secure environment, procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, etc..(Cherry 2012) Safety and Security needs include: Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts Love and belonging After physiological and safety needs the next basic need for a human is the love and belongings. This need is especially strong in childhood and this can be obtained by friendship, family and others love towards him. Maslow explains that humans need to feel a sense of belonging that they are accepted in their social group. For example small social group like family in which they are being accepted and they are recognised in the group.(Cherry 2012) Esteem All humans have a need have a feel that they need to be recognised in the society and they need to have their own respect. The fame or glory will not help anyone to get their respect they need to have their own self-esteem in order to be respected. Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated. This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.(Cherry 2012) Self-actualization What a man can be, he must be. This quotation explains the need for self-actualization. Maslow explains that everyone should have their own self-actualization in order to become the most that one can be. For example women may think that she needs to be the best mother for her children than any other mother. In understand this level of need, the person must needs to achieve the previous needs and also should be master in them.(Cherry 2012) Self-transcendence Self-transcendence refers to when a person seeks to further the boundaries of their ideal self, to experience an intimacy beyond ones self. Cloninger later incorporated self-transcendence as a spiritual dimension of personality in the Temperament and Character Inventory.(Cherry 2012) F. W. Taylors Scientific Management Theory F. W. Taylor was an American mechanical engineer completed his degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1883. He is well known as the father of scientific management. Taylors Contribution to Scientific Management F.W. Taylor has written the famous book called Principles of Scientific Management in which he mainly imposes three principles, they are First: To explain through simple illustration. Second: To convince the reader through systematic management, rather than explaining some unusual contents. Third: To prove that the management skills are true science. And also he explains that the fundamental principles of scientific management which can be applied for all human activities. For example a simple co-operation between the individuals in the company can raise the production value of the business. And also he convince the readers be simple illustration by correctly applying all his principles.(Taylor 1911) Taylor has defined scientific management as follows: Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.(Taylor 1911) Principles of Scientific Management The principles of Scientific Management are: 1. Replacing rule of thumb with science. 2. Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord. 3. Co-operation rather than chaotic individualism. 4. Increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production. 5. Development of workers by providing training. Result of Work Stress As a result of the work stress two major problems occurred in the Maruti. Low Production No Co-operation between the employer and employee Low Production Due to work stress for the employees, their hundred percent inputs for the work were not able to obtain and as a result it leads to less production. Most of the assembly line workers had much stressful work continuously and they are not paid for their work they intently produced less production. As these are the reasons for the less production. No Co-operation between the employer and employee Due to the improper management there was no proper co-operation between the employers and the employees. As the company has not followed any hierarchy structure and most of the employees are contract based employees there was no proper relationship between the employer and the employees. This is also a reason for less production. There two are the major cause as a result of the work stress for the employees in the Maruti Suzuki. Basic Need of the Workers By studying the two major theories, Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management we can suggest some solutions for the problems of the employees in the Maruti Suzuki. According to the two theories basic needs for the employees are (Taylor 1911, Cherry 2012) Permanent Job Proper Work Timing Promotion Transport Facilities Permanent job As about 70% of the employees in the Maruti Suzuki are contract based employees and they dont have the job security is also one of the reasons for the work stress for the employees. And the work stress leads to less production for the company. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs when we provide the employees with the basic needs of what they need they fell secure for working for the company. They get motivated automatically and they fell much secure and automatically reduce the work stress. As a result of less work stress, the employees may give their much effort for the production and hence the production can be increased considerably. Proper Work time Since most of the employees are contract based employees and hence they dont have the proper work timing schedule. And so it leads them to work for more hours. This is also a reason for the work stress for the employees. According to the Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management providing the employees with their basic needs and make them esteem will increase the confidence level for the employees. As a result of the providing proper work time their stress for the working hours will reduce and hence the production can be increased considerably. Promotion As most of the employees in the company are contract based employees and they dont have the promotion prospective. Since working continuously, without any promotion, or incentive makes many employees to feel stress about their work. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management if we make the employees to feel much secure about the work what they do and provide the employees with the hierarchy for the promotion will make them to feel much secure and their work stress will be reduced considerably. And hence the production will be increased automatically. Transport Facilities Since most of the large scale sector industries are located at remote locations, transport facilities to the company being a very complex issues for many employees in the company. According to Maslows theory, proving the employees with their need many reduce the stress for the employee and as a result the production can be increased considerably. So providing transport facilities from the employees from the company to the city center during the shift end and the beginning may reduce the complexity for the transportation to the employees. Implementation By studying the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management and the problems of the Maruti Suzuki, we can implement some solutions for the problems of the Maruti Suzuki based on the two theories.(Taylor. 2007, Taylor 1911, Cherry 2012) Implement Hierarchy structure for promotion and work allocation. As there was no proper management structure for the company for the promotion and other perspectives if we implement the Maslows hierarchy structure for the employment as the low level workers being in the bottom followed by the supervisors and managers and in the top level there being the management. By implementing Maslows hierarchy structure, the work load can be allocated and hence each worker will equal amount of works. Implement Proper Work Timing with three different shifts. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs providing the employees with their basic physiological needs the workers will fell much secure to work in the company. According to the theory implementing proper work timing with three different shifts which may reduce the workers to work for ling hours and hence their basic physiological needs get satisfied and the employees feel much secure in working for the company. Provide bus services in line with shift timings According to Maslows theory, providing the employees with their physiological needs may reduce the stress of the employees, According to which providing bus services to the employees in line with shift timing may reduce the stress in transportation to the employees. As most of the large scale industries are located in remote locations, so transportation being one of the major stressful tasks for the employees to make in time for the companies. By providing bus services may reduce their stress in transportation. Create a labor welfare committee to promote good relations between the management and the workers According to F. W. Taylors Scientific Management providing proper training to the employer and employees can create a three sixty degree relationship between them. According to Taylors theory creating a labour welfare committee provide a good relationship between the management and workers. Conclusion After studying the problems of the Maruti Suzuki and the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management the problems of the Maruti Suzuki have been solved by implementing the solutions to the problem from the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management. The major problem of the employees being the work stress have been solved by the Maslows hierarchal theory and the major problem for the management being the less production which have been solved by implementing F. W. Taylors Scientific Management theory.