Saturday, September 21, 2019
Dark Tourism And Ethical Issues Tourism Essay Abstract The research project aimed to do a critical analysis of the ethical issues of dark tourism. Six research objectives were set out to help achieve this aim. In the process of gathering relevant information on this topic, an analysis of dark tourism throughout the years will be done, followed by the commitment of different authors. Furthermore, by examine in depth both the consumers and providers point of views to further understand the ethical dilemma of dark tourism, the research project will highlight the main problems that occur within this sector of tourism. Secondary research has been chosen as a main research method. A wide variety of literature was gathered on the concept of culture and tourism by using a snowball sampling of secondary literature. This type of sampling was carried out by using the authors list of references to highlight other articles that might be of relevance. The findings indicated that, it may be possible to state that ethical issues will always continue to exist around dark tourism, as long dark tourism itself exists too. Recommendation has been given on the importance of the consideration of the ethicalities of dark tourism. As conclusion indicated, ethical issues cannot be understated, and both consumers and providers may want to work together, if in the future, we still would like to know about our history through the form of tourism instead through textbooks and education. Introduction Hall (1998) states that tourism is the worlds largest industry, and it is expected to continue to grow, develop and maintain. The tourist industry is a major economic, environmental and socio-cultural force, and it becomes a lifestyle for millions of people on our planet. Its beneficial effect on the development of political, social, cultural relations and international relations on a global scale has become an obvious fact to all countries around the world. (Meethan, 2001) Over the last half century it is seeing that tourists have long been attracted to places or events associated in one way or another with death, disaster and suffering. (Stone, 2009a) All these sites and many more which are similar, are what are called sites for dark tourism according to main theorists John Lennon and Malcolm Foley, also known as Thanatourism (Seaton, 1996 cited in Ryan et al, 2005) and Black Spots (Rojek, 1997). This form of tourism is what Seaton (1999) defines is about travelling to sites associated with death, suffering and other tragic events that have become significant tourist destinations. In fact, the act of touristic travel to places of death, war, genocide, assassination and disasters is becoming the most developing branch of tourism during the past years and cultural activity within contemporary society. At the same time, there is evidence of a greater willingness or desire on the part of tourists to visit dark attractions and the sites of dark events. (Stone, 2009a) For example, thousands of tourists come to Pont de lAlma Road Tunnel in Paris, to lay flowers and light candles in unofficial memorial of Princess Diana of Wales, where she died in car accident. With the growing popularity of this kind of tourism within the dark tourism market (Tunbridge and Ashworth, 1996), the ethical issues surrounding it will need to be enquired. Ethics plays a role in nearly every business related decision. (Hartman, 1998) With the consumers and providers participating in this growth of phenomenon of dark tourism, as they potentially contrasting ethical perspectives towards dark tourism may be different. Whereas a providers means of preserving history is to charge people to maintain its upkeep, the consumers may see it as money making scheme in the expense of the deceased lives of the site. Whereas the providers means of letting people know its history is through interpretation of vulgar images, may seem unethically unpleasant for consumers. The dissertation will focus on the question of ethics in dark tourism, thereby advancing knowledge and understanding of dark tourism itself. Aim The aim of the project is a critical analysis of the ethical issue of dark tourism. Whether the death could be sold and consumed throw dark attractions and national tragedies. Objectives To define Dark Tourism To define the concept of ethics To examine in depth both the consumers and providers point of views to further understand the ethical dilemma of dark tourism. To use Stone (2006)s shades of darkness spectrum as a tool for measuring different levels of dark tourism sites To establish a conceptual ethical framework for the study of selling provocative narratives of national tragedy in heritage situations To suggest recommendations on the ethical issues Rationale Despite the long history of dark tourism and evidence of travel to sites associated with death, the academic attention on this phenomenon has recently appeared. As a result, a number of fundamental questions with respect to dark tourism remain unanswered. (Stone, 2009a) This topic has been chosen due to a lack of research carried out on ethical and moral issues of dark tourism. The project can be useful to gain more knowledge into the topic of dark tourism. The study of dark tourism is important for a number of reasons. It can be used for educational purposes of wider social interest or for means of enjoyment. In relation to this Stone.R (2009, p.7) states: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Dark tourism provides the opportunity for tourists to experience playful houses of horror, discover places of pilgrimage such as the graves or death sites of famous people or visit sites of major disasters or atrocities Nevertheless, all these attractions require a deep understanding within cultural, social, historical and political context, effective interpretation and development. Otherwise the nature of dark tourism, in particular, the debates and conflicts it represent, will point to a number of issues that demand examination and understanding, such as ethics and morality. Whether people visit these sites for remembrance, education or entertainment purposes, there will be one dilemma relating to many dark attractions: if it is ethical and moral to sell, promote or offer death for touristic consumption. For example, millions of tourists stop alongside with those, who mourning the loss of loved ones, to see where the World Trade Center once stood in New York. In order to research the dilemma of the ethics and morality of dark tourism, it is necessary to realise that dark tourism is fascinating, emotive and provocative and it is important to explore many features of dark tourism, which may be perceived unethical by some people. Stone (2009a) states: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Consequently, the ethics of dark tourismÃ are perhaps part of the broader research agenda. Ultimately, from this research a fuller understanding of dark tourismÃ shall be made, and thus knowledge of the phenomenon advanced. Naturally, anyone researching dark tourism should consider the ethics of their research, in particular how data is both gathered and presented Furthermore a case study will be conducted in order to have a closer look at the situation and the major problems occurring regarding ethical issues of dark tourism. In addition, the researcher is originally interested in dark tourism phenomenon. For the past 2 years the researcher has visited the numerous places of death and disaster such as Chernobyl, and has noticed that it is becoming increasingly popular. The researcher also found out that, for 2 years there are numerous quantity of debates on particular dilemma, which will be analysed in the dissertation. It is hoped that this study will have an impact on understanding dark tourism. In addition, it is also hoped that this project will draw more attention to ethical issues and provide a new point of view for those, who does not accept truth and reality of dark sites or attractions. Literature Review Roberts (2004, p.73) defines a literature review as, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦locating, analysing, synthesising and interpreting previous researchÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ This section will be used to establish theoretical framework, identify models and studies and define key terminology in relation to dark tourism and ethics. All research that has been conducted will be presented within this section. An in-depth review of the literature has been done in order to gather relevant information on dark tourism itself and ethical issues throughout the years. The literature matrix illustrates the main areas which are perceived to be the most important in relation to the topic of dark tourism ethical issues. By creating a literature review matrix, it would help the researcher contrast and compare the authors work easily. As a result by carrying out a detailed review of the literature it could possibly identify important questions, key issues and noticeable gaps within the current knowledge on the topic. Dark Tourism: Definitions Only in recent years that it has been together referred to as dark tourism, travel to places associated with death, disaster and destruction has occurred as long as people have been able to travel. In many cases there is no clear definition of this tourism niche. Although, the term dark tourism was firstly created by Foley and Lennon (1996a,b). For Foley and Lennon, the term dark tourism relates primarily to the presentation and consumption (by visitors) of real and commodiÃ ¬Ã ed death and disaster sites (1996a:198); a broad deÃ ¬Ã nition later reÃ ¬Ã ned by their assertion that dark tourism is an intimation of post-modernity (Lennon and Foley 2000:11). At the same time, another terminology has been applied to the phenomenon. Seaton (1996) refers to death-related tourist activity as thanatourism, while other labels include morbid tourism (Blom, 2000), Rojek (1993) offered a Black Spot tourism definition, grief tourism and milking the macabre (Dann, 1994:61). Nevertheless, there is a factor, which is common to all these terms of tourism. It is all about association, in one form or another, between a tourism site, attraction or experience and death, disaster of suffering. As a result, definitions of dark tourism focus on connection between tourism and death. Tarlow (2005:48), for example, gives identification for dark tourism as visitations to places where tragedies or historically noteworthy death has occurred and that continue to impact our lives, a definition that aligns dark tourism somewhat barely to certain sites and hints at particular motives. Miles (2002) states that, however it excludes many dark sited and attractions related to, while not necessarily the site of, death and disaster. Therefore, for the purposes of this research project, the author will define dark tourism, according to Stone (2006, a) simply and generally as the act of travel to sites associated with death, suffering and the seemingly macabre. Ethics Stone (2006,a) states that ethics and the morality of selling provocative and sensitive narrative through heritage to the touring and visiting community is more established and documented problem of dark tourism. Ethics have been conceptualised as a set of rules and principles, concerning rightful conduct based on our most deeply held values, the things we most cherish and the things we most despise.(Lieberman, 2000). The term can also refer to the systematic study of way of thinking about how we ought to behave and finding a rational way of how we ought to live. Ethics and morality suggest a set of duties that require subordination of natural desires in order to obey the moral law (Singer, 1994). The 20th century saw philosophers approaching the problem of the origin of ethics as something unreachable. Among the most publicised conceptual thinkers in the field of ethics have been (Singer, 1994:18): Thrasymachus ( 4th century) and the thesis that ethics are imposed on the weak by the strong; Socrates (4th century) and the thesis that the ruler is not concerned with his own interests, but with that of the subject; Hobbes (17th century) and his statement that ethics give the ruler a right to to command and to be complied; Nietzsche (19th century) who proposed morality is the creation of the herd'(led more fear than hope) Ethics and Moralisation in Tourism There are numerous schools of thoughts and opinions, and literature on the board subject of ethics is prevalent. What is more significant in the situation of the dark tourism is suggesting a conceptual ethical framework for the analysis of providing and selling provocative narratives of nationwide tragedy in heritage settings. This study is concerned with two main and obvious parts of ethics and morality as follows: Business ethics and the extent to which businesses within the heritage industry which communicate a dark narrative to the visiting public consider their practices to be ethical( Stone, 2006,a) Personal morality and the extent to which these often provocative narratives are received and are passable according to the moral principles of visitors from widely varying cultural backgrounds. ( Stone, 2006,a) According to Stone (2006,a) the term business ethics has been described at the extreme as an oxymoron in the corporate world since some argue that morality, as Butcher ( 2003) states, is intrinsically absent in capitalist entrepreneurial ventures. At the moment the issue of business ethics is a conspicuous subject attracting attention from a number of communities of interest, such as consumers, pressure groups and the media (Strange and Kempa, 2003). According to Crane Matten (2007), corporate social responsibility is a dominant strand of the converse of business ethics and has been contrived to refer to the implicit process of communicating a legal and institutional corporate framework within which a duty of care (to people, the environment and employees among others) is implied. For dark tourism, it has not been fully elaborated upon in this context since there present different problems in communicating the social responsibility of these types of heritage sites, such as: The esotericism in the scope of what is morally acceptable to various communities of interest: is there a hierarchical order of care or responsibility that must be demonstrated? Stone (2006, a) provides example of Auschwitz as the most responsible way to admit visitors in compliance with the moral and ethical codes of the relatives of prisoners and victims, but also with the moral principles of other visitor types such as Polish visitors, young visitors. Conflicts of interest, according to Ryan et al (2005), are common in heritage but more morally charged where the narrative is provocative and contested Is it ethical to adopt another national tragedy and inculcate it with new national discourse? Cole (1999a) provides this in a context of the United States Holocaust memorial Museum which he disputes Americanises European Jewish tragedy, repacking Holocaust for American mass consumption in theatre, tourism and heritage. In general, these discourses of corporate social responsibility are present in language of many operations thus far defined as being in the dark tourism business Stone (2006a) states, that traditionally, tourism ethics are discussed in the context of tourism as a major economic engine that can wreak havoc on the environment and can negatively temper the influence host communities in destinations imagined as culturally sensitive Cheong and Miller (2000) discuss tourism ethics in terms of normalising what is acceptable or not acceptable, and an inspecting gaze influenced by the manipulation of imagery in tourism marketing. Tourism activity offers a rare, observable form of ethical behaviour. Tourists vote with their feet and demonstrate in visiting dark heritage sites that these are morally acceptable spaces to occupy. Ethical discourses linked to the production and consumption of contested heritage sites are shaped and maintained by many voices Stone (2006a). The issue of remembering tragedy and oppression in heritage sites and to whom memory is entrusted, is at the centre of academic debate surrounding truth and appropriate narratives broadcast by dark tourism sites. Summary of the literature review Issues in literature review has been addressed which stress the importance of the different definitions to cultural tourism suggested by different authors. The results of this literature review have enabled the author to complete the first objective of the study by demonstrating an understanding of the ethical issues of dark tourism, what dark tourism itself is and what ethical framework is. Using a wide range of modern academic perspectives has helped to illustrate meaning of dark tourism ethics academic perspective, which can be used in the following chapters in reviewing the main findings of the study undertaken. The matrix figure provides a summary of the main points generated by each academic paper and compares and contrasts the various authors views. The matrix figure illustrates the context of cultural tourism referred to in academic papers and books utilized in the literature review. It demonstrates that the opinions of the different authors are both different and similar. Methodology This section of dissertation is going to study the different research methods used within this project. In order to make this research project successful, it is important that appropriate research methods or techniques have to be chosen. The purpose of a methodology is to demonstrate, explain and justify the research methods used in this dissertation. According to Krippendorff (2004) the purpose of a methodology is to help the researcher effectively plan and examine the logic, composition and protocols of the research methods that have been used in research project. The researcher will present a summary of the sources of information gathered; a description of the procedure used to obtain information and the various research methods will be discussed. Furthermore, by completing the methodology it will demonstrate how a systematic investigation was applied into the topic of dark tourism. Choice of Research Design Secondary Data Sharp et al. (2002, p139) define two categories of data which are: primary data that the researcher collects through observations, interviews, questionnaires and etc.; and secondary data that have been collected by other previous researchers. As the author of this dissertation has already mentioned before, in order to perform this research project in successful way, two categories of data and different research methods should be investigated. This research project will be primarily based on secondary research because the primary research is not needed as all the information is already available through secondary research sources, such as books, journals and newspapers. What is more, in order to achieve the aim that has to be investigated, the best method of research would be secondary research. To enhance the existing but very little evidence of the posed topic, secondary research was gathered. Ghosh and Chopra (2003, p.33) define the term secondary research as: data which are already in existence and collected by others, not by the investigator and are available in published and unpublished forms Secondary research was chosen as the quickest and the easiest way to access and is the most cost effective approach to this research project as well. Veal (2006) confirms this by stating that secondary data often provides researchers with rapid answers to some questions at less cost than it would to undergo primary research. Furthermore, if there is enough secondary research to base the study on then it would be a waste of resources to collect new information for the same purposes (Veal, 2006).What is more, secondary research seemed more relevant than primary research. This was because there was wide variety of literature on the subject of dark tourism and ethical issues, sourced from University College Birmingham library, with many books containing relevant information, which will be discussed later. Primary Data The Oxford English Dictionary (2002) defines primary research which is collected for a specific and immediate research need There are many different ways in which to carry out primary research. In order of this research topic, the author found that many of the theories couldnt be backed up with primary data and with a suitable sample. For the purpose of this research project, primary research could be used to gather relevant data and access a large population of students at University College Birmingham and other universities situated in Birmingham. One of the core methods of carrying out primary research is through questionnaires. Mainly, there are two forms of questionnaires: open ended and closed ended. Open ended questionnaires are likely to have unlimited answers to a set of alternatives and likely to receive long answers. However, the difficulty is that they are difficult to analyse and as they seem to hand the baton of control over to the other person. Closed ended questions impose a direct risk to the validity of findings and can be answered with either a single word or a short phrase. Another form of primary research, which was considered were interviews. The Oxford English Dictionary (2002) defines interview as formal discussion between two parties in which information is exchanged. It is possible to say, that it is all about asking questions and receiving the answers. Therefore in this research project, due to difficulties in collecting the required data and access a large population for testing along the facilities required to carry out, a primary research would not be useful in gathering relevant data and the researcher will benefit further from analysing secondary data from literature. Obtaining Research The majority of secondary research for this dissertation was gathered from books, academically reviewed journals, on-line factual reports, newspapers and the internet. All this sources can justify the point of view of an author and provide relevant information about the research project. The most easily accessible secondary research method that the author of dissertation found was the usage text books. Text books were primarily used to gain background knowledge and obtain a wider understanding of specific topics. The advantage of using books is because it gives a clear understanding and academic information. As it was already mentioned before, this method was the easiest, because the researcher could get them not just from the University College Birmingham library, but also to the online library supplied by the University and other on-line organisations such as Amazon, EBay and Google. Key words had to be entered to find appropriate books from the on-line organisations and the library catalogue, the following key words were entered, dark tourism, dark tourism ethics, dark tourism and morality. There were some books which contained many different theories from the past to the present day. The researched decided that the most relevant authors for this research project were John Lennon and Malcolm Foley (2000) and Richard Sharpley and Phillip R.Stone (2009,a). Books for the methodology were found by entering the key words; research methods and methodology. The journals are preferred because they are accurate and provide up to date data, they are also more relevant to the topic as the dissertation is concentrated on the topic of consumers and providers point of views of dark tourism. The journals were accessed through academic search engines like Athens for example and journal databases such as ScienceDirect, Emerald Management Xtra. But unfortunately, these databases were not useful as they did not give any information on particular question, except ScienceDirect. Journals relating to the research topic were accessed with comfort as the researcher can type in key words and the database will present pages of journals that are associated with the key words. The key words the researcher typed in to each journal database were Dark tourism, ethical issues of dark tourism, ethics and morality, Dark tourism forum. To get more information, the researcher travelled to universities to view their journals however access to relevant information, w ere not as successful as it was to find them via the internet. On-line factual reports were used to obtain raw facts and figures; some of these reports include Mintel. Similarly to accessing the journals, key words were entered in order to retrieve the data, the key words that were entered were Dark tourism ethics, Dark tourism. Moreover, on-line articles were read in order to gain a wider perspective of the posed subject area. The usage of newspaper and internet will also be included in order to provide a variety of information and because they are easy of access. Newspapers are useful because they are up to date, however the information can be too subjective, and as for this particular topic of dark tourism, the researcher found newspapers not really useful, because of the lack of information on dark tourism. Internet was useful source of information; however the reader need to check if the source is reliable and information is updated. Websites are easy to access and easy to research information on and are also updated regularly. This variety of sources gives a better understanding of the subject. Construction of Design Out of all the research that has been taken, text books and academic journals were the most reliable and valid to use to back up any point. This is due to the fact that dark tourism is comparatively new phenomenon in tourism industry, books and academic journals are often published frequently throughout the year so the information that is provided is up to date. Furthermore, academic journals and text books are intensely reviewed by academic professionals before publication to ensure its validity. The author of dissertation aimed to gather resources that were only published after the year 1999 as this is relatively recent; however certain books have been used from a much earlier date due to their relevance to the research question. However, journals or books dated in the 80s or 90s will not consider as outdated. The selection of secondary data gathered has been published in a variety of places; it was thought that as the topic in question is ethical issue of dark tourism, then perhaps research published in a variety of countries would be useful to get a wide range of views from across the globe. Advantages and Disadvantages of Research Methods Although secondary research was the ideal research method to use for this research project, it does hold some disadvantages. There is always the risk that the author could include their own opinions, so they can strongly sway towards one point and books can be not updated on a regular basis. Also, with academic journals, there are many accurate topics and findings, however a fee is charged for many of them, some of which are only available to a certain group of people making them hard or even impossible to access, this could put a strain on the researchers findings. As for Mintel, some of reports were helpful, but not published yet for audience. Furthermore, Ghosh and Chopra (2003) mention that although it is more cost effective and less time consuming, the secondary research may not be as accurate as the researcher had hoped. Besides this, secondary research still remained ideal for the dissertation as the quality of data obtained can be better than the quality of primary research, as information gained through secondary sources could have been obtained using better and more advanced resources. Moreover, because of the lack of time and financial situation, secondary research was primarily used as being cost effective and less time consuming, it is also easy to access as it does not require any additional resources. Primary research was considered due to the fact that it is useful to gather relevant data and access a large population of students tailored to the researchers needs. However, it was rejected due to the lack of experience, funds and resources which could give a limit to the quality of the data gathered and as a result, being unsuccessful (Kumar, 2005). The researcher does not have any experience in carrying out primary research so in order to make the research project successful, it would be inappropriate for primary research to be undergone for this dissertation, and it would make more sense for the researcher to analyse findings from previous and more experienced researchers and academic professionals. Plan for Data Analysis As there is a variety of secondary information gathered, it is necessary for the researcher to analyse them carefully. This variety of sources gives a better understanding of the subject. Once it has all been collected, it will be thoroughly analysed to determine its validity and reliability, and those that are not pertinent will be rejected from being used for the dissertation. It is important that validity is measured carefully as Kirk and Miller (1986, p.71) mentions that perfect validity entails perfect reliability. In order to evaluate the collected research, the researcher will read over it and make their own judgments based on a number of factors surrounding it for example, the sources in which the information was collected from and the method in which the sources were collected. When applying the frame work, the researcher will use it to assess different aspects of the dark tourism ethics to conclude by providing final results to the aim. Summary This methodology has evaluated and justified the choice of research design for this dissertation. As secondary research is being used, the researcher has analysed this type of research by describing the advantages and disadvantages of it. After the collected research has been evaluated, the findings will be analysed and discussed in the following section. Analysis and Evaluation This section is essential as the researcher will be analysing and evaluating the findings of the research project. The main aspects of the results which were found in the data discussed in the literature review will be approached carefully in order to weigh up the arguments effectively. Dark tourism and ethical issues Among the more established dilemmas of dark tourism is ethics and morality. Dark tourism has often raised ethical debates and discussions about the ways in which leisure time and pleasure are mixed with tragedy (Kempa and Strange, 2003), as many people think some sites of dark tourism are too sensitive to present it for the world to see. In addition, management of dark tourism attraction is a sensitive issue which is difficult to undertake, and Tunbridge and Ashworth (1996) observed the misuse and abuse of sacred values for market benefit and entertainment purposes are more likely to occur at atrocity site than at other heritage sites. Moreover, as Stone (2009,a) states, the rights of those whose death is commoditised or commercialised through dark tourism represent an important ethical and moral dimension, which deserves depth consideration. However, although this may be the case, it actually varies depending on the sh
Friday, September 20, 2019
People often have nicknames to describe details about themselves. Nicknames are not self-created but given to the person from friends or even comrades. In Ã¢â¬Å"Into The Lake Of The WoodsÃ¢â¬ By Tim O' Brian, this is the case with John Wade, a former soldier that was nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"SorcererÃ¢â¬ . John Wade is named Sorcerer because of use of magic in his youth and how the men is his squad would feel protected because of his magical powers. As Sorcerer is Wade's alter ego, it seems that it goes on to cost him dearly later in his life. Wade eventually ends up becoming governor of Minnesota and tries to run for U.S Senate. He loses in a landslide victory to his opponent as evidence of the My Lai incident is uncovered. His actions as Sorcerer start to make his life for the worse. It is seen later that Wade's wife, Kathy, is missing and Wade is soon suspected as he remains calm and not involved in the search party. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien does not make it clear on how it Kathy's disappeara nce occurs but it is clear what happens. Sorcerer arrives again in John Wade as he pulls one final magic trick: to make Kathy disappear....forever. John Wade is an odd character in this novel as he goes through dramatic shifts in his life. Before the My Lai uncovering, John was seen as a respectable guy. He was physical attractive, had a Ã¢â¬Å"beautiful womanÃ¢â¬ (21) as his wife and he was polished. Behind all that though was something, disturbing to say the least. John would Ã¢â¬Å"wake up in the middle of the night screaming sometimesÃ¢â¬ (29). This was an indication that there were problems he was dealing with, and he was. John's depressing childhood and horrors of the My Lai incident eventually consumed him. John's childhood was rough because he had an abusive father which evidently, has s... ...stanced himself from relationships to concentrate on the horrible reality of war. As Sorcerer, he was able to kill without doubt and follow orders. He was seen as the magic protector of the squad as he also performed magic tricks in war. Sorcerer was able to keep him and the others safe and survive the Vietnam war. In the book, John Wade and Sorcerer are one. They are qualities of one person that ultimately makes him. It seems as the book progresses, Sorcerer takes over more and more until towards the end when Wade goes looking for Kathy. It seems Wade is able to overcome his loneliness and deteriorating mental state to come back as the respectable, good looking man people saw him as. We may never know what happened to Kathy and if the evidence chapter is really true in figuring out her fate but we see John Wade let go of Sorcerer and becomes himself again.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Shark Conservation Abstract Arising over 350 million years ago, the shark species has been labeled as a human devourer. Now, with the increase in human population, the demand for shark meat, fins, and cartilage are at an all time high; therefore, the existence of the shark is becoming a concern (Budker 1971). Individuals are conditioned to think of sharks as a negative aspect to the environment, which is prolonging the effort to save shark species from becoming extinct. With that in mind, some private as well as national organizations have accepted the challenge of educating and informing people about the existence of the shark specie and its importance to the sea. Introduction Portrayed as the beast of the sea, the shark species is a cold blooded animal that shows great diversity in size. The largest of the sharks measure up to 13.7 m, while the smallest of the species range from 22-to-25 cm (Ellis 1976). Typically, these creatures of the sea have a fusiform body, that is composed of cartilage, which is capable of reducing drag and the amount of energy needed to swim (Ellis 1976). Their countershade coloration allows the species to blend in with both the dark depths and the light surfaces of the sea (Ellis 1976). These beautiful dwellers of the sea also possess rigid fins that are supported by cartilaginous rods. All together the shark has five different types of fins: the paired pectoral fins, are used to lift the shark as it swims, the paired pelvic fins stabilize the shark, the one or two dorsal fins also stabilize the shark, a single anal fin provides stability in species where it is present, however not all sharks have the anal fin, and the caudal fi n which propels the shark (Lineaweaver and Backus 1970). The sharks head structure consist of lateral eyes, a ventral external nose, and a mouth that is ventrally located at the tip of the snout. Some species possess an eyelid like structure called a nictitating membrane, which helps in protecting the eye from being injured when prey are thrashing around, and a nasal barber, which are sensory projections near the nasal (Lineaweaver and Backus 1970). In the mouth, teeth are modified, enlarged placoid scales. Having numerous rows of teeth attached at their bases by connective tissue, sharks have rows of replacement teeth that are continually developed behind the outer row. As the functio... ... feeling to the slaughter of the shark species. Therefore, with positive education as an antidote to false and negative publicity the battle to save the endangered shark will be possible. In order to win the battle of losing the shark, the support of the general public will be needed to achieve this goal. Work Cited Baldridge, H.D. 1974. Shark Attack. Berkely Pub. Corp., New York. 263 Baldridge, H.D. 1988. Shark aggression against man: beginning of an understanding. 74(4):208-217 Budker, Paul. 1971. Life of Sharks. Columbia University Press. 10-18pp. Davies, D. H. 1966. About Sharks and Shark Attack. New York Hobbs, Dorman. 240-255 pp. Ellis, Richard. 1976. The book of Sharks. New York Grasset and Dunlap. 110-130 pp. Lineaweaver, T. H., and R. H. Backus. 1970. Natural History of Sharks. Philadelphia and New York. 23-40 pp. Martin, M. 1985. The shark: more threatened than threatening. Sea Frontiers. 31: 296-303. Perrine, D. 1999. Sharks and Rays of the World. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota. 132 pp. Woums, J., and L. Demski. 1993. Reproduction and Development of Sharks, Skates, Rays and Ratfishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 38(1): 270. Shark Conservation Essay -- Sharks Sea Life Animals Essays Shark Conservation Abstract Arising over 350 million years ago, the shark species has been labeled as a human devourer. Now, with the increase in human population, the demand for shark meat, fins, and cartilage are at an all time high; therefore, the existence of the shark is becoming a concern (Budker 1971). Individuals are conditioned to think of sharks as a negative aspect to the environment, which is prolonging the effort to save shark species from becoming extinct. With that in mind, some private as well as national organizations have accepted the challenge of educating and informing people about the existence of the shark specie and its importance to the sea. Introduction Portrayed as the beast of the sea, the shark species is a cold blooded animal that shows great diversity in size. The largest of the sharks measure up to 13.7 m, while the smallest of the species range from 22-to-25 cm (Ellis 1976). Typically, these creatures of the sea have a fusiform body, that is composed of cartilage, which is capable of reducing drag and the amount of energy needed to swim (Ellis 1976). Their countershade coloration allows the species to blend in with both the dark depths and the light surfaces of the sea (Ellis 1976). These beautiful dwellers of the sea also possess rigid fins that are supported by cartilaginous rods. All together the shark has five different types of fins: the paired pectoral fins, are used to lift the shark as it swims, the paired pelvic fins stabilize the shark, the one or two dorsal fins also stabilize the shark, a single anal fin provides stability in species where it is present, however not all sharks have the anal fin, and the caudal fi n which propels the shark (Lineaweaver and Backus 1970). The sharks head structure consist of lateral eyes, a ventral external nose, and a mouth that is ventrally located at the tip of the snout. Some species possess an eyelid like structure called a nictitating membrane, which helps in protecting the eye from being injured when prey are thrashing around, and a nasal barber, which are sensory projections near the nasal (Lineaweaver and Backus 1970). In the mouth, teeth are modified, enlarged placoid scales. Having numerous rows of teeth attached at their bases by connective tissue, sharks have rows of replacement teeth that are continually developed behind the outer row. As the functio... ... feeling to the slaughter of the shark species. Therefore, with positive education as an antidote to false and negative publicity the battle to save the endangered shark will be possible. In order to win the battle of losing the shark, the support of the general public will be needed to achieve this goal. Work Cited Baldridge, H.D. 1974. Shark Attack. Berkely Pub. Corp., New York. 263 Baldridge, H.D. 1988. Shark aggression against man: beginning of an understanding. 74(4):208-217 Budker, Paul. 1971. Life of Sharks. Columbia University Press. 10-18pp. Davies, D. H. 1966. About Sharks and Shark Attack. New York Hobbs, Dorman. 240-255 pp. Ellis, Richard. 1976. The book of Sharks. New York Grasset and Dunlap. 110-130 pp. Lineaweaver, T. H., and R. H. Backus. 1970. Natural History of Sharks. Philadelphia and New York. 23-40 pp. Martin, M. 1985. The shark: more threatened than threatening. Sea Frontiers. 31: 296-303. Perrine, D. 1999. Sharks and Rays of the World. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, Minnesota. 132 pp. Woums, J., and L. Demski. 1993. Reproduction and Development of Sharks, Skates, Rays and Ratfishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 38(1): 270.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The main purpose of the article, Airspace Blunders, is to identify the leading causes for airspace incursions, more commonly known as near-midair collisions, and to provide alternative courses of action to prevent them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Prior to 9/11, the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reported 10 clearly defined categories of causes; Unfamiliarity, Complex airspace, Overlying airspace, High workloads, Trusting technology too much, Confusion over landmarks, Problems getting clearances, Cutting it too Close, and finally, Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realizeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Of the causes identified, one was pilots being unfamiliar with the airspace boundaries, not being able to pick out local landmarks based on a section chart, understanding urban settings, strict noise abatement procedures and identifying different airspace classes. When you add in rapid-fire communications, high traffic flows and the complexity of a new patch of airspace, the challenges become much greater. The article suggests pilots being better prepared may mitigate these obstacles. This entails making sure the charts have proper scaling to signify key landmarks. These charts must then be studied. Prior to the flight, pilots were recommended to contact local pilots and flight instructors to obtain a sound understanding on normal clearances and potential problems. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When flying in complex airspace, the potential for flying into restricted airspace increases. Filing IFR for flight operations is an easier and safer option. Ã Ã ...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Four main justifications of Postal Acceptance Rule i. Ã¢â¬ËAd infinitumÃ¢â¬â¢ Justification Postal rule had existed almost for 200 years and the post had been creating problems for people which the courts are obliged to solve them logically. Why it had been creating so many problems for people and that we will be discussing later on. For now letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the four main justifications for postal rule of acceptance. It came from Treitel and he believes that the four main justifications are for the creation of postal rule.First of all, the first justification is the Ã¢â¬Å"Ad InfinitumÃ¢â¬ justification where its main rationale is that acceptance by post has to be valid on posting because if there were no postings which mean there is no contract formed. Based on the case of Adam v Lindsell, the defendant actually mail the offer of selling wool to plaintiff and the plaintiff was requested on mailing back to the defendant. Unfortunately there was an error in the offered pric e and plaintiff did not receive it.We can thus conclude that the defendant had not receive the letter of acceptance and therefore the defendant assume that the plaintiff did not want to accept his offer so he sold the wool to a third party. There was actually a contract exists before the sale of the wool because acceptance made right after the mail is being mailed. Therefore, the defendant was liable in breach of contract. In this case, it might go on ad infinitum because once mail is being posted which means that acceptance is being made.Of course, there is a high level of uncertainty because of the distance between the two parties causing them difficulties for the formation of contract. ii. Ã¢â¬ËSymbolic ActÃ¢â¬â¢ Justification In this justification, rationale being that the offeror must be considered as continually making (the offer) until he has brought to the knowledge of the person to whom it made that it is withdraw. Based on the case of Brogden v Directors of Metropolita n Railway Co, there was a contract sent by the defendant (Directors of Metropolitan Railway) to the plaintiff (Brogden) regarding the contract.The plaintiff agreed the contract by signing it and return to the defendant. The defendant then filled in the blanks without informing the plaintiff about the acceptance. Since there is no acceptance being communicated between the both parties, the plaintiff did not supply the company with coals. Thus, there was subsequently a dispute arose that whether the written agreement was valid. Although the action of communication of acceptance had not been showed clearly, in fact the written agreement was valid despite no acceptance being informed.Reason being both parties had already agreed on the terms of the contract without any objections. In the real world, we do not see an offeror consistently making an offer to people, and subsequently this justification seems to be attempting to affect a useful acceptance rule rather than providing any real r ationale for the postal rule. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. The Law of Contract, 11th Edition, 2003 page 25 [ 2 ]. Stevenson P. J, 2010 [ 3 ]. (1818) 1 B&A 681 [ 4 ]. Henthorn v Fraser (1892) 2 Ch. 27 [ 5 ]. Stevenson P. J, 2010
Monday, September 16, 2019
The play Antigone is one of the known Greek tragedies. Written by Sophocles and performed in 441 BC, the play is considered, up to the present time one of the most recognized tragedies ever written. But then, what is a tragedy and what differentiates it from other forms? Aristotle, in his Poetics, defined tragedy as Ã¢â¬Å"the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself.(Aristotle, VI.2)Ã¢â¬ Aside from such, tragedies also have the ability to instigate a feeling of pity and fear for the character. However, these feelings will be lost due to a catharsis or purging of such emotions caused by the tragic hero. There has been much debate as to who is the tragic hero in the play. Ã In Aristetolian definition , the tragic hero is doomed to fail and posseses aÃ tragic flaw, or fatal flaw. In the case ofÃ Antigone, her tragic flaw, or misjudgement, that is hamartia is her higher laws of duty to the gods and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family. She is willing to do all things for the laws she strongly abides by and fight for the family whom she is devoted to. Creon ,Ã on the other hand, is quite the opposite. He disregards the directives from the gods. The charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ tragic flaw takes the character down as the tragedy progresses. I quote from AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s line Ã¢â¬Å"Gladly will I meet death in my sacred duty to the dead. Longer time have I to spend with them than with those who live upon the earth. Seek not to argue with me; nothing so terrible can come to me but that an honored death remains.Ã¢â¬ (Sophocles) Truly, Antigone is ready to face death to fulfill her duties. In CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s case, I quote, Ã¢â¬Å"Honoring the good and punishing the vile, as well beseems a ruler, I have assigned due funeral rites to Eteocles, who died fighting for the fatherland; but Polynices, who sought to make desolate with fire his native city and its gods, and who sought to glut himself with kindred blood and lead our citizens to slaveryÃ¢â¬âto him shall no man give a tomb. Let the body lie mutilated, as a feast to dogs and birds. Therefore have I appointed watchers over his corpse, and do ye watch yourselves that no one disobey. Greed has often led men to their death.Ã¢â¬ (Sophocles) Aside from having a tragic flaw, Aristotle defines a tragic hero as having several other characteristics that invoke the emotions of the audience who are watching the tragedy. The tragic hero is characterized by four major attributes. The first, tragic flaw, or hubris has already been discussed in the earlier part. Another trait is that the character must be either born of noble blood, must posses nobility; or is born with a high degree of wisdom. In the case of Antigone, she is born of nobility. Antigone is OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢ and JocataÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. Then again, Creon is also of noble origin since he is the current ruler at.that time. After such follows perepetia or a reversal of fortune which is caused by the aforementioned flaw. Antigone is emprisoned and starved to death, while Creon eventually loses all that he has. CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s anagorisris or realization of his mistakes came too late. When he consulted the prophet Teiresias, all of his family were dead and Antigone had already commited suicide. Antigone was written by Sophocles a known tragedian, it was written for Greek audience and was meant to be performed on a Greek stage. Antigone is One of the 3 Theban plays or Oedipus cycle. This set contains Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus and the aforementioned play, Antigone. The characters in the play are individuals who are part of Greek mythology. The play is set in the kingdom of Thebes at a time after the outbreak of a war in between armies led by the two sons of Oedipus. The main conflict of the play was presented in the beginning of the play. Since the beginning of the play, the conflict lies on the death of the two brothers who had apparently killed each other. Creon suggested that Polynices would not be given proper burial. He argues that since Polynices fought against the kingdom of Thebes, he cannot be buried with proper rights while Eteocles received full military honors in his burial. Having found out what had become of his brothers, Antigone defies CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s decree and decides to bury his brother. When Creon found out about this, he ordered for PolynicesÃ¢â¬â¢ remains to be dug out. At this point, Antigone accepts to be punished by death for the action she has done. Ismene claims to be part of this incident but Antigone does not allow her to admit to such act. The Main characters in the play are: Antigone , Ismene, AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s sisterÃ Creon, Eurydice, Haemon and Teiresias. Antigone is a woman who adheres firmly to the law of the gods as well as the protection of her family. In the course of the play, we see that Antigone holds onto what she believes in up until her death. Ismene, as she goes into a dispute with her sister, showed her resilience and how AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas had greatly influenced her. Creon is AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle. But unlike Antigone, he is a firm believer of the laws of man. He is constrained by the ideas of simplicity and goos sense. Eurydice is CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. She is silent but very significant since her suicide marked the total fall of Creon. Haemon is AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s fiancÃ © and Creons son. He tries to convince his father to spare AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. He was also responsible for speaking of the opinion of the people that AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was right. Teiresias is the blind prophet who spoke to tell Creon of his wrongdoings. Teriesias blindness and EurydiceÃ¢â¬â¢s silence tells us how significant the stillness can become. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In our modern age, there is still debate on who should be followed. Although most laws that are created adhere to the known laws of our religion, there is still conflict between the man-made and divine laws. At times, it is very difficult to decide which laws to put first, especially when there is no absolute right and wrong. However, as what had happened to Creon, it is very possible that we make a mistake and end up much like the tragedy that is in Antigone. Works Cited Aristotle, Poetics. Gregory, Justina, ed.. A Companion to Greek Tragedy, 2005 Segal, Charles, Tragedy and Civilization: An Interpretation of Sophocles (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999, new edition). Sophocles. Three Theban Plays. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin Books, 1986, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã p. 35 Ã
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Introduction to Allstar Brand Allstar Brand is a United States based consumer products company that produces and sells ethical (prescription) pharmaceuticals, OTC (over-the-counter or nonprescription) drugs, and consumer products. It is an $8.9 billion firm that was formed in 1924 and competes with a variety of larger and smaller firms, depending on the product market. It has a number of leading brands in various product categories. Over the years, it has expanded its product category width through internal new product development and acquisition of brands as well as companies. Allstar has operations in Europe and alliances in Asia. These have proven to be very successful markets that performing exceedingly well. But these markets are maturing very quickly, and with increased competition and slowing populations, it is now necessary to look elsewhere for continued growth and profit margins. The Allstar Board believes that to generate the kind of growth needed to drive their stock price, Allstar needs to develop a market presence in South America. South America is a region of great potential. With a population of approximately 450 million, the region represents a population that is 50 percent larger than that of the United States and Canada. The dominant national language across South America is Spanish, as is the case with Argentina. A variety of trade enhancement actions have put in place in recent years. The MERCOSUR agreement was set up among the South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, including association agreements (but not membership) with Bolivia. This agreement reduces trade barriers among these countries and has encouraged a variety of companies to establish production inside their borders to take advantage of low labor costs and fairly seamless access to neighboring markets. For accounting purposes at AllstarÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate offices, revenues and costs are converted into US$. Therefore, fluctuations in the exchange rate will affect consolidated reports directly. Allsmile Demographics Allsmile, a toothpaste brand, is a key asset of Allstar Brands. It is one of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s highest recognition brands in the United States. It is produced in the United States and in Germany for the United States and European markets, respectively. A large number of stock keeping units (SKUs) are produced. South Korean and Japanese manufacturers also produce Allsmile under license for distribution and sales in Asia. There have been reformulations of the brand, but as of today, the product formulations are essentially the same across all markets for a given SKU (although there are slight differences in packaging and in the type and intensity of flavoring that are thought to reflect regional preferences). With an entrance to South America, it may end up being cost effective to build a plant in South America instead of shipping products from the United States. Current world toothpaste sales total approximately $10 billion. The largest country market for toothpaste is the United States, with $1.4 billion spent during the past year. Toothpaste is available in a number of sizes, delivery systems, textures (paste or gel), and formulations. The basic toothpaste product is a paste or gel with flavoring and one or more active ingredients that provide specific benefits to consumers. A general description of these variations in the United States market is listed below. It is important to note that not all companies produce all possible combinations as each company determines where the holes in the market are and where the most money can be made. Why Argentina? Below is a market attractiveness index for the potential countries Allstar could enter. We have listed five criteria which we believe most accurately provide the best comparative results. The importance weight displays the percentage of importance to the criteria compared other criteria. Under each country is a rating. The ratings illustrate the importance of the criteria in that specified country. The assessment combines the importance weight of the criteriaÃ¢â¬â¢s and the overall assessment of the country. As you can see by this chart, we have determined that Argentina would be the best country to sell Allsmile toothpaste. Background on Argentina Argentina is a large country comprised of approximately 1,068,302.2 square miles, slightly smaller than 3/10 the size of the United States. It has a democratic government that was set up in 1983. It has a population of 39.9 million people of which about 49% are male and 51% are female. Of the population, 97.1% of the people ages 15 and higher can read and write. Eighty-eight percent of the population lives in urban areas. The population of Argentina is pretty steady and is only growing at 0.96%. At 97%, Argentina is comprised primarily of Spanish and Italian (white-skinned) people. The life expectancy of Argentina is quite high with males living to 76 years of age and women living to 80. The age structure of Argentina is typical of what it to be expected for a South American country. The Age Structure Chart below shows the different classifications. ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Economy Argentina currently has a strong economy compared to its neighbors. Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, and an export-oriented agricultural sector. It has a large industrial section. Over the past decade however, the country has suffered recurring economic problems of inflation, external debt, capital flight, and budget deficits. Growth in 2000 was at negative 0.8%, as both domestic and foreign investors remained skeptical of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to pay debts and maintain the pesoÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. The economic situation worsened in 2001 with the widening of spreads on Argentine bonds, massive withdrawals from the banks, and a further decline in consumer and investor confidence. Government efforts to achieve a Ã¢â¬Å"zero deficit,Ã¢â¬ to stabilize the banking system and to restore economic growth proved inadequate in the face of the mounting economic problems. The pesoÃ¢â¬â¢s peg to the dollar was abandoned in January 2002, and the peso was floated in February. The exchange rate plunged and real GDP fell by 10.9% in 2002, but by mid-year the economy had stabilized. GDP expanded by about 9% per year from 2003 to 2005. Growth is being led by a revival in domestic demand, solid exports, and favorable external conditions. The government took corrective action and boosted spending ahead of the October 2005 midterm congressional elections, but strong revenue performance allowed Argentina to maintain a budget surplus. Inflation has been rising steadily and has now reached 12.3%. The unemployment rate for Argentina is currently 11.5% which translates to businesses the people have money to purchase products. As you can see on the Market Comparison Chart below, Argentina is the leader in GDP/Capita and is second in GDP Growth and CPI Growth. ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Infrastructure Argentina, while smaller than some countries in South America, has a great infrastructure. Argentina has 21,183 miles of railways, 129,463 miles of highways, and 6,835 miles of waterways. In addition, Argentina has 11 ports and harbors and 1,333 airports. This expansive infrastructure makes doing business in Argentina very reliable and smooth. As mentioned before, Argentina falls under the MERCOSUR Agreement which allows for seamless transactions between the countries under the agreement (Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and Bolivia). This agreement reduces trade barriers among these countries and has encouraged a variety of companies to establish production inside their borders to take advantage of low labor costs and fairly seamless access to neighboring markets. The chart below shows the benefits of doing business in Argentina. It also points out the extra costs of doing business outside this agreement. When deciding whether to build a plant in Argentina, we recommend looking at another country. It is important to take into effect all factors. For example, one may at first glance think Mexico is the most suitable to manufacturing, and this may be the case if the company was going to do business in the United States or Canada. However, when doing business in South America, it is important to stay within whichever trade agreement you will be doing business under. Otherwise, high tariffs and duties will blanket your company. It is also very important to look at means of distribution, specifically shipping. The table below shows the per unit costs for shipping toothpaste from various manufacturing locations, assuming the usual shipping mode for each origin Ã¢â¬â destination combination. As you will notice, having a plant in the United States is not so valuable because imports to Latin America come with a high price on shipping comparatively from shipping from within Latin America. As mentioned earlier, it is of great importance to note that in addition to shipping originating within Latin America, one also has no import duties or tariffs if shipping is done within the regional shipping agreements, such as is the case with the MERCOSUR agreement. Distribution channels in Latin America have traditionally been grouped into four categories: traditional, self-serve, hypermarket, and newly emerging is web purchases. Traditional channels are small, independent stores or open market areas almost exclusively served by wholesalers (indirect distribution). Self-serve is a more developed store where customers serve themselves, but that typically offers a narrow line of merchandise. These may be independent or part of a regional chain but are almost all locally owned. Convenience stores and grocery stores would fall in this category. Hypermarkets are a new style of channel that is found primarily in cities. These are usually large stores with a wide variety of goods and typically purchase items directly from the manufacturer (direct distribution). Many of the hypermarket chains are foreign owned or allied with a global distributor, such as Wal-Mart or Carrefour. The chart below shows the toothpaste distribution within each channel.